(1) Juvenile Andean toads (Bufo spinulosus) observed at m were markedly diurnal and more active during sunny days than cloudy days. (2) On a sunny. Reference for: Bufo spinulosus. Source: Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference, database (version 3). Acquired: Notes: Frost, Darrel R. Semiochemicals of Bufo spinulosus, the Andean toad Family: Bufonidae. Subfamily: Bufoninae. Genus: Bufo. Tribe: Author: Wiegmann.

Author: Yot Tokree
Country: Uzbekistan
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Love
Published (Last): 19 May 2005
Pages: 359
PDF File Size: 1.87 Mb
ePub File Size: 1.27 Mb
ISBN: 111-9-22500-639-4
Downloads: 53967
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Gora

Quantitative models to predict the core temperature of toads spiulosus the different weather conditions demonstrated that the substrate temperature was the main energy source accounting for Therefore, the explanations for the detected differences in size at metamorphosis of B.

The authors would also like to thank Dr. Received December 2, ; accepted March 1, Nuestros resultados sugieren que para B. Journal of Comparative and Biochemical Physiology B: The HQD presented lower ash content 6.

Results showed that geographic origin did not affect assimilation efficiency, while the relationship observed between temperature and diet quality was significant. Journal of Evolutionary Biology The Tukey test HSD was used to establish differences among samples.

Given the wide geographical distribution of B.

Therefore, the inclusion of temperature in studies of dietary assimilation capacity is an important point, which up to date has been scarcely spinuoosus.

We are currently performing research in order to elucidate the effects of geographic variation on life-history traits in this species. Therefore, if the larvae from different studied localities consume spinulosua diets, it would be reasonable to assume that their digestive biochemical processes are similar Toloza a. These authors propose also that local abiotic conditions, especially water temperature, could explain the adults morphological divergence observed in individuals from the Tatio population, which represents an extreme in the morphological variation observed for this species.

After two weeks each group of tadpoles were transferred to a container with clean water without food.

Rhinella spinulosa – Wikipedia

For each temperature treatment and locality of origin, three replicates were used for each of two diet treatments: However, both experimental diets utilized are similar in composition i. Periodic changes between thigmothermic behaviour and locomotory activity during the night maintains body temperature above air temperature and prolongs the period of food spinulksus. Bufo spinulosustadpoles, assimilation, temperature effects, diet quality effects, geographic origin effects.


Las barras de error corresponden al EE. Table 1Fig. This page was last edited on 28 Marchat In order to satisfy the normality requirements of the data, the assimilation efficiency vufo transformed using: Where it occurs it tends to be abundant. If the sky was clear, toads emerged from their hiding place and exposed themselves to solar radiation during h in the morning. This Bufonidae article is a stub. Toads preferred sites that provided shady hiding places as well as sun-exposed bare soil within a radius of 5 m.

Views Read Edit View history.

However, very few spinullosus have focused on the intraspecific variability at either the intra- or inter-individual levels. Following heliothermic heating during the moring toads retreated to the shade, thereby decreasing body temperature below air temperature. Articles with ‘species’ microformats Taxonbars with automatically added original combinations Taxonomy articles created by Polbot Wpinulosus stub articles.

Rhinella abei Rhinella achalensis Rhinella achavali Rhinella amabilis Rhinella amboroensis Rhinella arborescandens Rhinella arenarum Rhinella arunco Rhinella atacamensis Rhinella humboldti Rhinella bergi Rhinella chavin Rhinella cophotis Rhinella crucifer Rhinella diptycha Rhinella dorbignyi Rhinella fernandezae Rhinella fissipes Rhinella gallardoi Rhinella gnustae Rhinella granulosa Rhinella henseli Rhinella spinulowus Rhinella inca Rhinella jimi Rhinella justinianoi Rhinella lilyrodriguezae Rhinella nesiotes Rhinella ornata Rhinella poeppigii Rhinella pombali Rhinella pygmaea Rhinella quechua Rhinella rubescens Rhinella rubropunctata Rhinella rumbolli Rhinella spinulosa Rhinella schneideri Rhinella vellardi Rhinella veraguensis.

Water in the containers was changed every 72 h and then the containers were randomly rearranged. American Museum of Natural History. However, the AE of food was shown to be significantly affected by the environmental temperature, type of buof and by the interaction between temperature and diet Table 1Fig.

Behavioural thermoregulation of the Andean toad (Bufo spinulosus) at high altitudes.

It breeds in temporary ponds, altiplano lagoons, and slow flowing streams. However, the energy that an organism obtain from food is mainly dependent upon its digestion i.


Bufo spinulosus larvae were collected from four localities from the northern and central zones of Chile: However, they frequently changed their centers of activity and moved to other sites in m distance after periods of days.

Due to diets of highest nutritional quality generally produce an increase in the rates of growth and differentiation, it is assumed that the amount of energy and nutrients present in high quality foods would be better utilized by tadpoles.

An Annual Review The efforts directed toward understanding and explaining the physiological diversity in animals has been concentrated in comparative studies between species from different habitats. This pattern coincides with our results in B.

Revista Chilena de Vufo Natural Amphibian Species of the World: Evaporative cooling and preference of shady sites were employed to regulate body temperature below the morning levels in response to the constraints of water balance. Concerning larval stages Benavides described that Bufo spinulosus tadpoles from different geographic localities, exposed in laboratory to identical photoperiod, temperature and diet conditions, reach to different sizes at metamorphosis.

Behavioural thermoregulation of the Andean toad (Bufo spinulosus) at high altitudes.

Error bars correspond to SE. All containers were checked every 24 h to guarantee the availability of food. Although there is a lack of systematic studies on the larvae diet of this species, preliminary data from two localities Tatio and Farellones indicates that spimulosus larvae consume algae that are similar in total energy and total nitrogen content Benavides, unpublished data.

Consequently thermoregulatory behaviour differed according to cloud cover and precipitation.

Assimilation efficiency of Bufo spinulosus tadpoles of different geographic origin, maintained at two temperatures: