Modern chemical synthesis techniques have allowed for improved incorporation of nano‐scale additives into solid propellants. Various. Kumar Ishitha, P. A. Ramakrishna. () Activated charcoal: as burn rate modifier and its mechanism of action in non-metalized composite solid propellants. The combustion of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellants containing ne ammonium perchlo- rate (AP) was investigated using laser-excited, .

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This event occurs around K and it was not considered because it represents a phase transition of ammonium perchlorate AP from the orthorhombic to the cubic form [ 2122 ]. DSC thermal decomposition curves of AP.

The perchlorate serves as the oxidizerwhile the binder and aluminum serve as the fuel. The addition of burning rates catalysts like Fe 2 O 3 on the propellant formulation alters the thermal decomposition behavior of AP, and consequently the thermal decomposition behavior of the propellant. With the same above assumptions, the Kissinger method 8 may be used to calculate the activation energy and the pre-exponential factor from the maximum rate condition which will occur at the maximum exothermic peak temperature, T p.

Therefore, a particle’s rate of temperature rise is maximized when the particle size is minimized.

The precise division between the two-phase and gas-phase region i. The main one is the wp process. The aging process is one propellahts the most significant factors hhtpb for changes in the activation energy of solid hgpb usually reduction.

Due this, the flame structure of AP composite propellants is complex and locally three-dimensional in shape. The explosion heat value of these data increase with the kneading time before 3 htph, and the value decrease with the kneading time after 3 hours. This isn’t to say that APCP cannot cause an explosionbut rather that the explosion would be caused by the pressure surpassing the burst pressure of the container rocket motor. Therefore, when kneading time increases to 5 hours, the combustion heat of propellant in Table 4 decreases to the value of propellant with simple mixed nano-CuO kneading 2 hours.


These parameters are the activation energy, Ea, and the pre-exponential factor, A, relatives to the decomposition process. Wikipedia references cleanup from April All articles needing references cleanup Articles covered by WikiProject Wikify from April All articles covered by WikiProject Wikify Articles lacking in-text citations from September All articles lacking in-text citations Articles propellabts multiple maintenance issues. This mechanism was proposed by Gross [ 6 ], according to literature pro;ellants.

They were both derived from the basic kinetic equations for heterogeneous chemical reactions and therefore have a wide application, as it is not necessary to know the reaction order [ 19 ] or the conversional function to determine the kinetic parameters. It is very interesting the analysis of the combustion for its close relation to the thermal decomposition.

The table below shows the elementary reactions which take part on the combustion process. There is always the premise in all simulations and all studies that the materials are in a perfect state, flawless. The combustion mechanism of AP has been studied and modified.

Subscribe to Table of Contents Alerts. Despite these heating rates are not close to the rocket motor chamber conditions heating rates estimated as 10 6 K s -1 the slower heating rates used in this work allow one to get a better insight into the reaction kinetics mechanisms.

To receive news and publication updates for Porpellants of Nanomaterials, enter your email address in the box below. On the other hand, the dispersibility of nanocatalysts also affected its catalysis crucially [ 7 — 9 ].

Edited by Amal Ali Elkordy. First, nano-CuO was dispersed in ethanol by ultrasonic. The propellant particle size distribution has a profound impact on APCP rocket motor performance.

Catalysts always play a key role in heat releasing procedure of propellant. In other words, the decomposition mechanism of AP powder of fine particle size differs that of AP of larger particle size.

The Hfpb curves are presented in Figs. In this fashion, the geometry of the propellant inside the rocket motor plays an important role in the overall motor performance.

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Propellannts synthetic aging process was conducted by exposing the cured propellant formulation to a temperature of K for days in a muffle FNT-F3-T W that was monitored day by day during this period. Kneading time ranged from 1 to 5 hours to change the dispersibility of nano-CuO catalyst in the propellant. Meanwhile, the RSD values of samples decrease from 4.


Another important aspect of DSC curves is the correlation of maximum temperature of exothermic peak obtained propellajts each heating rate applied to the composite sample during the experiments. As the particle radius increases the volume and, therefore, mass and heat capacity increase as the cube of the radius. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations.

Effect of the Dispersibility of Nano-CuO Catalyst on Heat Releasing of AP/HTPB Propellant

These conditions are necessary because differences in the raw materials, as ammonium perchlorate AP particle size, can affect the thermal decomposition behavior of the composite.

In htppb to this criteria, in this study, high heating rates were used Thermal decomposition of AP, as its combustion processes, have been experimentally studied and reported in the literature. The activation energy determined by applying these methods is the sum of activation energies of chemical reactions and physical processes in thermal decomposition and therefore it is called apparent.

Activation energy is calculated from the slope of the curve using the following equation:. The endothermic event is quite similar for the different heating rates used and it shows the same peak temperature. The approaches are the following:. Applications of Calorimetry in a Wide Context.

Learn how and when to remove these template messages. These methods are widely used for the investigation of thermal decomposition of organic materials [ 10 ], polymers [ 1112 ], propellantd [ 13 ] and explosives [ 14 ].